Remember that experiments do not always need to show major differences or trends to be important. There is no evidence that short-term growth of epidermal cells is controlled through the orientation of microfibrils. You need to report the research results with enough details so that readers can see which statistical analyses were conducted and validated to justify or disprove your hypotheses.
Respiratory Care 49 October ; Kretchmer, Paul. If you choose to combine the results section and the discussion section into a single narrative, you must be clear in how you report the information discovered and your own interpretation of each finding.
Read your draft aloud to catch language errors grammar, spelling, and mechanicsawkward phrases, and missing transitions.
Be certain that you clearly identify your comments as speculation or as a suggestion for where further research is needed. Here are some simple examples: Another example of this phenomenon comes from the work of Williams However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study.
For example, describing lessons learned, proposing recommendations that can help improve a situation, or recommending best practices. However, if your findings raise a lot of new questions or issues, consider including suggestions for further research in the discussion section.
When multiple authors have made equal contributions to the research, they often list their names alphabetically or in a randomly determined order. The name s of the author s and year of publication are included in the body of the text.
Got it homework help example of a good, self-explanatory title would be: "The Effects of Light and Temperature on the Growth of Populations of the Bacterium, Escherichia coli ". Excerpted from: Sato, S.
Smithsonian Institution. Using first person can help emphasize a point or illustrate a contrasting finding. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, Writing the Results. The description of findings [results] and the interpretation of their significance [discussion] should be distinct sections of your paper.
Regardless of where it's mentioned, a good discussion section includes analysis of any unexpected findings. Often the results of a study point to the need for additional background information or to explain the topic further, so don't think you did something wrong. Again, there should be a clear organization.
In the third basic way to organize a method section, the participants subsection is followed by a materials subsection before the design and procedure subsections. Unless the author is requested by the journal or advisor to included Results and Discussions together, explanations and interpretations of these results should be omitted from the Results.
A good strategy is to always re-read the background section of your paper after you have written up your results to ensure that the reader has enough context to understand the results [and, later, how you interpreted the results in the discussion section of your paper].
The first is a clear statement of the main research question or hypothesis. Remember that you are writing scope of the study in thesis classmates who have knowledge similar to yours. A chronological order or even a hierarchy of importance or meaningful grouping of main themes or categories might prove effective.
Was the independent variable manipulated, and if so, was it manipulated between or within subjects? Second, it is important to emphasize the structure of your argument in your writing. Will the answer fill a gap in the literature?
Discussions usually consist of some combination of the following elements: Summary of the research. University of Toronto; Summary: Using it Wisely. MacCoun, Robert J.
The materials that were used in the research are simply mentioned in the narrative as the experimental procedure is described in detail. Use tables and figures as a focal point to tell a clear and informative story about your research and avoid what do dissertation mean information. During an orientation meeting at the nursing home, the rules and regulations were explained, one of which regarded the dining room.
Writing Scientific Papers Present a synopsis of the results followed by an explanation of key findings. Find our more on writing high-quality research papers You may also like.
The discussion will always connect to the introduction by way of the research questions or hypotheses you posed and the literature you reviewed, but the discussion does not simply repeat or rearrange the first parts of your paper; the discussion clearly explain how your study advanced the reader's understanding of the research problem from where you left them at the end of your review of prior research.
For example, you may have noticed an unusual correlation between two variables during the analysis of your findings. The first line is not indented. If one section ends part of the way down the page, the next section heading follows immediately on the same page.
Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings It is important to remember that the purpose of research in the social sciences is to discover and not to prove. If the title had been "Effect of Environmental Factors on Growth of Escherichia coli ", the reader would not know which environmental factors were manipulated.
Consider seeking additional guidance on your paper. The participants subsection indicates how many participants there were, the number of women and men, some indication of their age, other demographics that may be relevant to the study, and how they were recruited, including any incentives given for participation.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe h90, the homothallic, readily sporing haploid strain, was used. Be concise and make your points clearly. This section should not offer any reasons for those particular conclusions--these should have been presented in the Discussion section. One approach would be to answer the most general questions and then proceed to answer more specific ones.
Note any unanswered questions check writing services online issues your study did not address, and Find additional readers to look over your Results section and see if it can be improved in any way. When sagebrush, Artemesia science dissertation length, a plant shown to possess methyl jasmonate in leaf surface structures, is incubated in chambers with tomato plants, proteinase inhibitor accumulation is induced in the tomato leaves, demonstrating that interplant communication can occur from leaves of one species of plant to leaves of another species to activate the expression of defensive genes.
Processes of Organic Evolution. If the title had been only "Effects of Light and Temperature on Escherichia coli ", the reader would have to guess which parameters were measured. If appropriate, note any unusual or unanticipated patterns or trends that emerged from your results and explain their meaning in relation to the research problem.
Deduction: a claim for how the results can be applied more generally. Cells at the exponential phase were spread on a MY plate and further incubated at 30oC for 4 to 6 h before harvesting for microscopy.
For example, if you studied the impact of foreign aid on increasing levels of education among the poor in Bangladesh, it's generally not appropriate to speculate about how your findings might apply to populations in other countries without drawing from existing studies to support your claim.
With this in mind, be careful that you do not read more into the findings than can be supported by the evidence you have gathered. Confusing figures with tables.
Separating the data into separate graphs makes best online paper easier for the reader to assess the findings, and consolidating this information into one figure saves space and makes it easy to locate all of the most relevant results. Since your Introduction went from the general to a specific question, going from the specific back to the general will help to tie your ideas and arguments together.
These sub-sections or divisions can be based on: Your research questions, example of results and discussion in research paper or models, or The statistical tests you have conducted. Proper citation of references will be described later.
In the second approach, the participants section is followed by separate design and procedure subsections. For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories.
Follow a logical stream of thought. The rationale for excluding data should be described clearly so that other researchers can decide whether it is appropriate.